The Himalaya Range (Sanskrit: हिमालय, IPA pronunciation: [hɪ'mɑlijə]), or Himalayas for short, is a mountain range in Asia, separating the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau. By extension, it is also the name of the massive mountain system which includes the Karakoram, the Hindu Kush, and a host of minor ranges extending from the Pamir Knot. The name is from Sanskrit himālaya, a tatpurusa compound meaning "the abode of snow" (from hima "snow", and ālaya "abode"; see also Himavat
Together, the Himalayan mountain system is the planet's highest and home to the world's highest peaks: the Eight-thousanders, including Mount Everest (Nepal/China) and K2 (Kashmir). To comprehend the enormous scale of this mountain range consider that Aconcagua, in the Andes, at 6,962 m, is the highest peak outside Asia, while the Himalayan system includes over 100 mountains exceeding 7,200 meters.
The Himalayan system, which includes outlying subranges, stretches across six countries: Bhutan, China, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Afghanistan. They are the source of three of the world's major river systems, the Indus, the Ganga-Brahmaputra, and the Yangtze. Approximately 1.3 billion people live in the drainage basin of the Himalayan rivers.
The range proper runs west to east, from the Indus river valley to the Brahmaputra river valley, thereby forming an arc 2,400 km long, which varies in width from 400 km in the western Kashmir-Xinjiang region to 150 km in the eastern Tibet-Arunachal Pradesh region. The Himalaya chain consists of three parallel ranges, with the northern-most range known as the Great or Inner Himalayas.
Notable Peaks of the Himalayan System (includes outlying ranges)
|Peak Name||Other names and meaning||Elevation (m)||Elevation (ft)||First ascent||Notes|
|Everest||Sagarmatha, "Forehead of the Sky",
Chomolangma, "Mother of the Universe"
|8,848||29,035||1953||World's highest mountain, situated in China and Nepal.|
|K2||Chogo Gangri||8,611||28,251||1954||World's 2nd highest. Located in the Karakoram of Pakistan/China.|
|Kangchenjunga||Kangchen Dzö-nga, "Five Treasures of the Great Snow"||8,586||28,169||1955||World's 3rd highest . Located in Sikkim (India) and Nepal.|
|Lhotse||"South Peak"||8,516||27,940||1956||World's 4th highest. Situated between Nepal & Tibet, in the shadow of Everest.|
|Makalu||"The Great Black"||8,462||27,765||1955||World's 5th highest. Situated in Nepal.|
|Cho Oyu||Qowowuyag, "Turquoise Goddess"||8,201||26,905||1954||World's 6th highest. Situated in Nepal.|
|Dhaulagiri||"White Mountain"||8,167||26,764||1960||World's 7th highest. Situated in Nepal.|
|Manaslu||Kutang, "Mountain of the Spirit"||8,156||26,758||1956||World's 8th highest. Located in the Gurkha Himal, Nepal.|
|Nanga Parbat||Diamir, "Naked Mountain"||8,126||26,660||1953||World's 9th highest . Located in Pakistan.|
|Annapurna||"Goddess of the Harvests"||8,091||26,545||1950||World's 10th highest. Deadliest mountain on Earth. Situated in Nepal.|
|Gasherbrum I||"Beautiful Mountain"||8,080||26,509||1958||11th highest mountain on Earth. Located in the Karakoram of Pakistan/China.|
|Broad Peak||Faichan Kangri||8,047||26,401||1957||12th highest mountain on Earth. Located in the Karakoram of Pakistan/China.|
|Gasherbrum II||-||8,035||26,362||1956||13th highest mountain on Earth. Located in the Karakoram of Pakistan/China.|
|Shishapangma||Xixiabangma, "Crest Above The Grassy Plains"||8,013||26,289||1964||14th highest mountain on Earth. Located in Tibet.|
|Gyachung Kang||unknown||7,952||26,089||1964||15th highest mountain on Earth. Located in Nepal/Tibet.|
|Gasherbrum IV||-||7,925||26,001||1958||17th highest on Earth and an extremely technical climb. Located in the Karakoram of Pakistan/China.|
|Masherbrum||unknown||7,821||25,660||1960||22nd highest on Earth. Located in the Karakoram of Pakistan/China.|
|Nanda Devi||"Bliss-Giving Goddess"||7,817||25,645||1936||23rd highest on Earth. Located in Uttarakhand, India.|
|Rakaposhi||"Shining Wall"||7,788||25,551||1958||A massive peak that towers above local terrain. Located in the Karakoram of Pakistan/China.|
|Gangkhar Puensum||Gankar Punzum, "Three Mountain Siblings"||7,570||24,836||Unclimbed||World's highest unclimbed peak remains off-limits to mountaineers. Located in the Kingdom of Bhutan.|
|Ama Dablam||"Mother And Her Necklace"||6,848||22,467||1961||Considered by some to be the most beautiful peak in the world. Located in the Khumbu, Nepal.|